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The project was initiated on 1 January 2011. 

The expected results of the project can be summarized as follows:

  • The factor in milk responsible for the FIAF-inducing effect is identified. This may help the dairy industry promote products such as whole milk as part of an accepted diet.
  • The robustness towards various processing steps in the dairy industry is examined, which may allow the food industry to utilize this component or milk fraction as an additive in or constituent of combined foods – depending on the nature of the component.
  • The mechanism of action is identified in the intestinal cells, explants, and animal studies. The identification of mechanistic pathways opens up for investigation of similar effects of related compounds - perhaps originating from other sources.
  • The mechanism of action is identified in humans, and the effects of FIAF-inducing milk component(s) on body weight, fat mass, fat oxidation, and lipid profile in humans are documented.
  • Possible interaction between FIAF-inducing milk component(s) and the gut microbiota is identified, and the exploitation of the influence of food items on the microbiota, and subsequently human health, contributes to the establishment of a new paradigm within basic food and health relations.
  • Consumer perception and a strategy for communication of potential benefits of FIAF-inducing milk component(s) to the consumer are directly applicable within the food industry where similar issues are relevant in relation to inherent biologically active components of diverse food items.


Results so far:

  • The fat fraction of milk holds the main up-regulating effect on the FIAF-gen expression in the human intestinal cell line HCT119.
  • Medium chain fatty acids are main responsible for the up-regulating effect.
  • Feeding pigs with milk induced higher FIAF-gene upregulation in the small intestine compared to control fed pigs or pig fed with control feeding + inulin.


Peer reviewed articles:    

  1. Liisberg, U, Myrmel, LS, Fjære, E, Rønnevik, AK, Kristin, SB, Fauske, R, Holm, JB Basse, AL, Hansen, JB, Liaset, B, Kristiansen, K, & Madsen, L (2016). The protein source determines the potential of high protein diets to attenuate obesity development in C57BL/6J mice. Adipocytes. 5(2):196-211. doi: 10.1080/21623945.2015.1122855
  2. Nielsen, SD, Amer, B, Mortensen, G, Petersen, RK, Kristiansen, K, Young, JF, & Dalsgaard, TK. (2015). Medium chain fatty acids from milk induce angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) gene expression. Int. Dairy J. 42, 34-41 DOI: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2014.10.011.
  3. Amer, B, Nebel, C, Bertram, HC, Mortensen, G, Dalsgaard, TK (2015). Direct derivatization vs. liquid extraction methods of fecal free fatty acids for GC-MS analysis. Lipids, 50, 681-689, DOI: 10.1007/s11745-015-4029-5.
  4. Zheng, H Clausen, MR, Dalsgaard, TK and Bertram, HC (2015). Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake Nutrients, 7, 4875-4896. doi:10.3390/nu70x000x
  5. Nielsen, SD, Jessen, R, Dalsgaard, TK, Young, JF. (2015). Secretion of angiopoietin-like 4 protein from intestinal cells. J. Funct. Foods Health Disease, 5, 57-66.
  6. Nielsen, SD, Young, JF, Mortensen, G, Petersen, RK, Kristiansen, K, & Dalsgaard, TK (2014). Activation of the angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPLT4) gene by milk fat and casein. Int. Dairy J. 36, 136-142.
  7. Hong Zheng, Morten Rahr Clausen, Trine Kastrup Dalsgaard, Grith Mortensen & Hanne C. Bertram 2013. A time-saving design of experiment protocol for optimization of LC-MS data processing in metabolomics approaches. Anal. Chem. 85 (15), 7109-7116. DOI: 10.1021/ac4020325.
  8. Blædel, T, Holm, JB, Sundekilde, UK, Schmedes, MS, Hess, AL, Lorenzen, JK, Kristiansen, K, Dalsgaard, TK, Astrup, A, Larsen, LH. A randomized, controlled, crossover study of the effect of diet on Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4)   through modification of the gut microbiome. Accepted for publication in J Nutr Sci.
  9. Nielsen, SD, Amer, B, Blaabjerg, K, Dalsgaard, TK, Jessen, R, Petrat-Melin, B, Krøyer, M, Poulsen, HD, Young, JF. Whole milk increases intestinal ANGPTL4 expression and excretion of fatty acids through feces and urine. Submitted to J. Agrsci. Food Chem.
  10. Blædel, T, Kjølbæk, L, Hess, AL, Kersten, S, Lorenzen, JK, Astrup, A, Larsen LH. The association between Angiopoietin-like protein 4 and lipid metabolism during weight management. Manuscript in prep.
  11. Blædel, T, Valsesia, A, Viuerie, N, Cara AD, Armenise, C, Lefebvre, G, Charon, C, Astrup, A, Langin, D, Hager, J, Saris, W, Larsen LH. Getic variants and expression of Angiopoeitin-like Protein 4 in obesity: The DiOGenes study. Manuscript in prep.
  12. Hess, AL, Blædel, T, Valsesia, A, Hager, J, Astrup, A, Saris, W, Cara, AD, Larsen, LH. Analysis of Plasma Angiopoietin-Like Protein 3 Genetic Variants in Lipid Metabolism. Manuscript in prep.
  13. Lamichhane, S, Sundekilde, UK, Blædel, T, Hess, AL, Lorenzen, JK, Astrup, A, Larsen, LH, Young, JF, Bertram, HC. Impact of sample preparation on stability of metabolites in human fecal metabolomics studies. Manuscript in prep. Will be submitted to Analyst or Anal. Chem.
  14. Amer, B, Zheng, H, Nielsen, SD, Bertram, HC, Young, JF, Dalsgaard, TK. Short chain fatty acids in intestine section after intake of milk and inulin diets. Manuscript in prep.


Contribution to conferences:  

  1. Young, J.F., Nielsen, S.D., Amer, B., Mortensen, G., Petrat-Meling, B., Jessen, R., Dalsgaard, T.K. Milk fat derived FFA induces angiopoietin-lilke 4 gene expression and protein secretion form intestinal cells. 17th International Conference of Functional Food Center. 5th International Symposium of the Academic Society of Functional Foods and Bioactive Compounds, 18-19 November 2014, California, USA.
  2. Young, J.F., Nielsen, S.D., Dalsgaard, T.K., Rasmussen, M.K., Ekstrand, B. qPCR for Food Quality and Identification of Bioactive Components in Foods. 2nd qPCR and Digital PCR Congress, 20-21. October 2014, London, UK.
  3. Karsten Kristiansen, Oral presentation: The gut microbiota and health promoting effects of dairy products. Danish Dairy Research Foundation symposium, Aarhus October 6, 2014
  4. Lesli H. Larsen og Trine K. Dalsgaard, joined oral presentation: FIAF – Milk in regulating lipid metabolism and overweight. Uncovering milk’s ability to modulate the expression and activity of fasting-induced adipose factor FIAF. Danish Dairy Research Foundation symposium, Aarhus October 5, 2014.
  5. Nielsen, S, Amer, B, Young JF, Mortensen, G, Andersen, HJ, Dalsgaard, TK (2014). Can milk help protect against obesity? Abstract and poster session presented at Keystone Symposium on Lipid Pathways in Biology and Disease, 19 -24 March, Dublin, Ireland.
  6. Blædel, T., Lorenzen, J.K., Brahe, L. K., Kersten, S., Astrup, A., Larsen, L.H. (2014). Angiopoietin-like protein 4 concentration is positively correlated with weight, lipid oxidation and fasting triglycerides in overweight and obese participants. Abstract and poster to be presented at the International Conference on Obesity 17th to 20th of March 2014, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  7. Søren Drud Nielsen, Bashar Amar, Jette F Young, Grith Mortensen, Arne Astrup, Henrik J Andersen. Milk- Fat has Potential as Regulator of the Fasting-Induced-Adipose-Factor (FIAF). IDF World Dairy Summit, 28. October – 1. November 2013, Yokohama, Japan.
  8. Søren Drud Nielsen, Bashar Amer, Jette F. Young, Rasmus K. Petersen, Grith Mortensen, Arne Astrup, Henrik J. Andersen & Trine K. Dalsgaard. 2013. Milk has Potential as Regulator of the Fasting-Induced-Adipose-Factor (FIAF). Food Biotechnology and Nutrigenomics, 30-31 May 2013, Vejle, Danmark.  
  9. Grith Mortensen. Mælk der slanker, indlæg til Mejeriforskningens dag – Forskning, der nytter, 11. april 2013 Hotel Legoland, Billund, Denmark.
  10. Karsten Kristiansen. Tarmens bakterier og deres betydning for menneskets sygdomme, indlæg til Mejeriforskningens dag – Forskning, der nytter, 11. april 2013 Hotel Legoland, Billund, Denmark.
  11. Trine K. Dalsgaard, Søren D. Nielsen, Bashar Amer, Grith Mortensen, Hanne C. Bertram, Arne Astrup, Karsten Kristiansen, Henrik J. Andersen & Jette F. Young. Milk has Potential as Regulator of the Fasting-Induced-Adipose-Factor (FIAF), IDF World Dairy Summit 2012, 4.-8. November 2012, Cape Town, South Africa.
  12. Grith Mortensen. Erfaringer med ansøgningsprocedure og bevilling, Indlæg ved informationsmøde arrangeret af Det Strategiske Forskningsråd, 21. marts 2011, Århus.


Dissemination activities:

  1. Søren Drud Nielsen, Trine K. Dalsgaard, Jette F. Young, Grith Mortensen, Janne K. Lorenzen, Arne Astrup, Karsten Kristiansen og Lise Madsen. 2013. Mælk der slanker? Mælkeritidende 126 (2): 8-9.´
  2. Søren Drud Nielsen, Jette Feveile Young, Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup (2013). Virker mælk slankende? Ny KvægForskning, 11 (6): 3. ISSN 1603-600X.